几个还算有用的Apache htaccess配置

开启Apache的.htaccess文件可以让站点进行1些个性化的应用配置。这里提供了几个不错的.htaccess片段,希望能够根据你的实际情况优化你的网站,包括重定向、性能、可用性等!

  1. 强制后缀反斜杠(在URL的尾部加上反斜杠似乎对SEO有利)
    <IfModule mod_rewrite.c>
    RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} /+[^\.]+$
    RewriteRule ^(.+[^/])$ %{REQUEST_URI}/ [R=301,L]
    </IfModule>
  2. 防盗链
    RewriteEngine On
    #Replace ?mysite\.com/ with your url
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} !^http://(.+\.)?mysite\.com/ [NC]
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_REFERER} !^$
    #Replace /images/nohotlink.jpg with your "don't hotlink" image url
    RewriteRule .*\.(jpe?g|gif|bmp|png)$ /images/nohotlink.jpg [L]
  3. 重定向移动设备(如果你的网站支持移动设备访问的话,最好还是重定向移动设备的访问到专门定制的页面)
    RewriteEngine On
    RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} !^/m/.*$
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_ACCEPT} "text/vnd.wap.wml|application/vnd.wap.xhtml+xml" [NC,OR]
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} "acs|alav|alca|amoi|audi|aste|avan|benq|bird|blac|blaz|brew|cell|cldc|cmd-" [NC,OR]
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} "dang|doco|eric|hipt|inno|ipaq|java|jigs|kddi|keji|leno|lg-c|lg-d|lg-g|lge-" [NC,OR]
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT}  "maui|maxo|midp|mits|mmef|mobi|mot-|moto|mwbp|nec-|newt|noki|opwv" [NC,OR]
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} "palm|pana|pant|pdxg|phil|play|pluc|port|prox|qtek|qwap|sage|sams|sany" [NC,OR]
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} "sch-|sec-|send|seri|sgh-|shar|sie-|siem|smal|smar|sony|sph-|symb|t-mo" [NC,OR]
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} "teli|tim-|tosh|tsm-|upg1|upsi|vk-v|voda|w3cs|wap-|wapa|wapi" [NC,OR]
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} "wapp|wapr|webc|winw|winw|xda|xda-" [NC,OR]
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} "up.browser|up.link|windowssce|iemobile|mini|mmp" [NC,OR]
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} "symbian|midp|wap|phone|pocket|mobile|pda|psp" [NC]
    #------------- The line below excludes the iPad
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} !^.*iPad.*$
    #-------------
    RewriteCond %{HTTP_USER_AGENT} !macintosh [NC] #*SEE NOTE BELOW
    RewriteRule ^(.*)$ /m/ [L,R=302]
  4. 强制浏览器下载指定的文件类型(你可以强制浏览器下载某些类型的文件,而不是读取并打开这些文件,例如txt)
    <Files *.txt>
    ForceType application/octet-stream
    Header set Content-Disposition attachment
    </Files>
  5. 火狐的跨域名字体嵌入(火狐不允许嵌入一个外站的字体,下面的.htaccess片段可以绕过这个限制)
    <FilesMatch "\.(ttf|otf|eot|woff)$">
    <IfModule mod_headers.c>
    Header set Access-Control-Allow-Origin "http://yourdomain.com"
    </IfModule>
    </FilesMatch>
  6. 使用.htaccess缓存(给网站提速!恐怕这个是最有用的代码片段了。这段代码能帮你极大的提高网站的速度)
    # 1 YEAR
    <FilesMatch "\.(ico|pdf|flv)$">
    Header set Cache-Control "max-age=29030400, public"
    </FilesMatch>
    # 1 WEEK
    <FilesMatch "\.(jpg|jpeg|png|gif|swf)$">
    Header set Cache-Control "max-age=604800, public"
    </FilesMatch>
    # 2 DAYS
    <FilesMatch "\.(xml|txt|css|js)$">
    Header set Cache-Control "max-age=172800, proxy-revalidate"
    </FilesMatch>
    # 1 MIN
    <FilesMatch "\.(html|htm|php)$">
    Header set Cache-Control "max-age=60, private, proxy-revalidate"
    </FilesMatch>
  7. 重定向不同的feed格式到统一的格式(很多年前,有很多不同的feed格式,例如RSS、Atom、RDF等等。但是现在RSS已经占了绝对的主导地位。下面这段代码可以让你重定向不同的feed格式到同一个feed)
    <IfModule mod_alias.c>
    RedirectMatch 301 /feed/(atom|rdf|rss|rss2)/?$ http://example.com/feed/
    RedirectMatch 301 /comments/feed/(atom|rdf|rss|rss2)/?$ http://example.com/comments/feed/
    </IfModule>
  8. 配置网站的HTML5视频(HTML5为我们带来了不用Flash的视频播放功能,但是你必须配置你的服务器来提供最新的HTML5视频播放功能)
    RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-f
    RewriteCond %{REQUEST_FILENAME} !-d
    RewriteCond %{REQUEST_URI} !=/favicon.ico
    AddType video/ogg .ogv
    AddType video/ogg .ogg
    AddType video/mp4 .mp4
    AddType video/webm .webm
    AddType application/x-shockwave-flash swf
  9. 记录PHP错误(在页面上显示PHP错误是很尴尬的事情,也不安全,下面这段代码可以把PHP错误记录到.log文件中而不在页面显示)
    # display no errs to user
    php_flag display_startup_errors off
    php_flag display_errors off
    php_flag html_errors off
    # log to file
    php_flag log_errors on
    php_value error_log /location/to/php_error.log

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